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Imagine the following schema:

Assume that the host wants to ping the host
Considering the actual ways of communication, this is something impossible, because with only one IP address, the packet can only reach the gateway
With RNAT it is possible. The only necessary changes are to have a modified version of ping command in and a specific software in gateway. It is possible to get the following result:

root@client:~# ping -a -c 3
PING ( - 56 octets data
64 octets from - icmp_seq=0 ttl=254 time=34.1 ms
64 octets from - icmp_seq=0 ttl=254 time=37.4 ms
64 octets from - icmp_seq=0 ttl=254 time=31.2 ms
3 packets transmitted, 3 packets received, 0% packet loss

See that changes in and are not needed.
The same is valid to TCP and UDP.

Follows the screenshot of the modified version of putty: